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The International Space Station docked with Europe’s ATV Johannes Kepler and Space Shuttle Endeavour as seen by Expedition 27 crewmember Paolo Nespoli from the Soyuz TMA-20.
Hands-On vs. Hands-Off Project Management at ESA

By Bob Chesson   Most European Space Agency (ESA) projects are contracted to European industry on a firm fixed-price (FFP) basis. These FFP contracts and their statements of work transfer most of the project risks to the prime contractor, who then transfers as much risk as he can to subcontractors and equipment suppliers.

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