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A meteoroid slammed into the surface of Mars on December 24, 2021, leaving this massive crater and ejecting boulders of water ice across a wide area. In the months that followed, two NASA teams pieced together what the impact was and what it reveals about the planet’s crust. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona
Large Impact on Mars Is Rare Opportunity

Meteoroid leaves massive crater, ejects boulders of ice.

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Mariner 4 was the first spacecraft to take close-up photographs of another planet. Credit: NASA
This Month in NASA History: Mariner 4 Launches

Mission replaces wild ideas about Mars with the first stark images of the surface. 

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NASA teams returned to the Black Point Lava Flow, north of Flagstaff, Arizona in October, using the unusual terrain there to simulate conditions at the south pole of the Moon. Credit: NASA
Artemis Astronauts Visit Desert to Prepare for Moon

NASA returns to Black Point Lava Flow for analog missions.

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A full-scale model of the inflated aeroshell for NASA’s Low-Earth Orbit Flight Test of an Inflatable Decelerator (LOFTID) is displayed at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Credit: NASA/David C. Bowman
NASA Prepares for Hypersonic Test of Inflatable Decelerator

Technology could transform exploration of Mars, other planets.

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An artist impression of Ulysses spacecraft at Jupiter. Ulysses used Jupiter's powerful gravity to hurl it out of the Plane of the Ecliptic so it could study the polar regions of the Sun. Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech
This Month in NASA History: Ulysses Begins Journey

Crew of STS-41 launches spacecraft on out-of-ecliptic mission to the Sun.

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Jupiter’s moon Europa fascinates scientists searching for life in the solar system because evidence indicates it holds a massive ocean beneath surface ice that is miles thick. This image of Europa was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft in the late 1990s. Credit: NASA
Juno to Provide Close View of Europa

Spacecraft developed through collaborative project management.

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A rock on Mars with two holes where the rover's drill obtained chalk-size samples. The rover’s Delta Campaign has collected samples that scientists are eager to examine in laboratories on Earth. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Perseverance’s ‘Tantalizing Suite of Rocks’

Rover’s journey over ancient dry lakebed on Mars yields surprises.

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In this artist’s illustration, a Pioneer space probe travels beyond the planets in the solar system. Credit: Don Davis/NASA
This Month in NASA History: Pioneer 11 Arrives at Jupiter

Space probe’s journey began with exceptional project management.

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Helga and Zohar are equipped with 6,000 radiation detectors to gather data about how and where the human body absorbs radiation in space and to test a new protective vest for astronauts. Credit: StemRad
Phantom Pair Examine Space Radiation

Helga and Zohar will return valuable data to protect astronauts.

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