On the Cover Issue 46
On the Cover — Issue 46, Spring 2012

Astronomers used the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) telescope to take this deep image in ultraviolet light of the sprawling spiral galaxy M81, hoping to learn where it kept its hot stars. Hot stars emit more ultraviolet than cool stars, and are frequently associated with young, open clusters of stars and energetic star-forming regions. Less than […]

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Above Bear Lake, Alaska, the Northern Lights, or aurora borealis, are created by solar radiation entering the atmosphere at the magnetic poles. The appearance of these lights is just one way solar radiation affects us; it can also interfere with NASA missions in low-Earth orbit. To achieve long-duration human spaceflight missions in deeper space, several NASA centers are working to find better safety measures and solutions to protect humans from space radiation.
On the Cover – Issue 51, Summer 2013

Above Bear Lake, Alaska, the Northern Lights, or aurora borealis, are created by solar radiation entering the atmosphere at the magnetic poles. The appearance of these lights is just one way solar radiation affects us; it can also interfere with NASA missions in low-Earth orbit. To achieve long-duration human spaceflight missions in deeper space, several NASA centers are working […]

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NASA announced a Grand Challenge focused on finding all asteroid threats to human populations and knowing how to deal with them. Grand Challenges are ambitious goals on a national or global scale that capture the imagination and demand advances in innovation and breakthroughs in science and technology. The challenge is a large-scale effort that will use multidisciplinary collaborations and a variety of partnerships with other government agencies, international partners, industry, academia, and citizen scientists. It complements NASA’s recently announced mission to redirect an asteroid and send humans to study it. To read more about the challenge and respond to NASA’s request for information, visit www.nasa.gov/asteroidinitiative.
ASK Interactive (ASK 51)

  NASA in the News NASA announced a Grand Challenge focused on finding all asteroid threats to human populations and knowing how to deal with them. Grand Challenges are ambitious goals on a national or global scale that capture the imagination and demand advances in innovation and breakthroughs in science and technology. The challenge is […]

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NASA’s Van Allen Probes discovered a previously unknown, transient third radiation belt around Earth, revealing the existence of unexpected structures and processes within these hazardous regions of space. The Van Allen belts are affected by solar storms and space weather and can swell dramatically, and this discovery shows even new belts can be temporarily formed due to particle reactions. “Even fifty-five years after their discovery, the Earth’s radiation belts still are capable of surprising us and still have mysteries to discover and explain,” said Nicky Fox, Van Allen Probes deputy project scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. This discovery shows the dynamic and variable nature of the radiation belts and improves our understanding of how they respond to solar activity. Scientists observed the third belt for four weeks before a powerful interplanetary shock wave from the sun annihilated it.
ASK Interactive (ASK 50)

  NASA in the News NASA’s Van Allen Probes discovered a previously unknown, transient third radiation belt around Earth, revealing the existence of unexpected structures and processes within these hazardous regions of space.

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COVERThis is a composite of a series of images photographed from a mounted camera on the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, from approximately 240 miles above Earth. Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit said of the photographic techniques used to achieve the images: “My star-trail images are made by taking a time exposure of about 10 to 15 minutes. However, with modern digital cameras, 30 seconds is about the longest exposure possible, due to electronic-detector noise effectively snowing out the image. To achieve the longer exposures I do what many amateur astronomers do. I take multiple 30-second exposures, then ‘stack’ them using imaging software, thus producing the longer exposure.” A total of 18 images photographed by the astronaut-monitored stationary camera were combined to create this composite.
On the Cover – Issue 50, Spring 2013

This is a composite of a series of images photographed from a mounted camera on the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, from approximately 240 miles above Earth. Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Don Pettit said of the photographic techniques used to achieve the images: “My star-trail images are made by taking a time exposure of about 10 […]

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NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, caught the glow of two black holes lurking inside spiral galaxy IC342
ASK Interactive (ASK 49)

NASA in the News NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, caught the glow of two black holes lurking inside spiral galaxy IC342, which lies 7 million light-years away in the constellation Camelopardalis (the Giraffe).

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James Webb Space Telescope Mirror
On the Cover — Issue 49, Winter 2013

As the planned successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, even the smallest of parts on the James Webb Space Telescope will play a critical role in its performance. “Actuators” are one component that will help Webb focus on some of the earliest objects in the universe. Pictured is the Webb engineering design unit’s primary mirror […]

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Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, Expedition 32 flight engineer, uses a digital still camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during the mission’s third session of extravehicular activity.
Beyond the ISS

This article is excerpted and adapted from Structuring Future International Cooperation: Learning from the ISS, by L. Cline, P. Finarelli, G. Gibbs, and I. Pryke   In September 1988, the United States, Canada, Japan, and ten member nations of the European Space Agency signed agreements that established what was originally the Space Station Freedom (SSF).

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